Educational Technology Glossary
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glossary compiled/created by M. Shaw
Use Agreement/Policy (AUA or AUP)
A set of rules that govern
the responsible behaviour and use of technology provided by a School Board
or District, including the legal implications surrounding the use of the
Devices that help people
with visual impairments, hearing losses, severe speech impairments, physical
disabilities and/or severe learning disabilities cope with demands that
are placed upon them from their environment. An important consideration
when designing computer based training (CBT) might include the use of computer-based
hardware or software adaptive devices.
An acronym for an instructional
systems design model whose components include: Analysis,
Acrobat Reader is a free
software product from Adobe, designed to view .pdf (portable document format)
documents downloaded from the World Wide Web.
High-end graphics software
from Adobe that is used
to create and edit digital images. You can use Photoshop to create, edit,
manipulate and save graphic images in various file formats for use in Web
pages, PowerPoint presentations, and word processing documents. Digital
or scanned photos can easily be retouched, maniupulated, and/or incorporated
with other graphic elements.
Using online technology
part-time to enhance face-to-face instruction can be considered adjunct
or supplemental. Examples include: using the computer to construct models
in various subject areas; using the Internet to access resources; various
tasks assigned to students online, such as those developed with the ‘WebQuest’
(2002) template; participation in online activities to produce collaborative
or cooperative work in or out of the classroom; establishing remote learning
communities, and associations and relationships with a variety of external
A learning domain that refers
to an idividual's appreciation, attitudes, interest, values, and/or psychological
adjustment to a specific subject, topic or situation. Learning objectives
and test items should allow individuals to illustrate these factors.
(Analog to Digital Converter)
A sound card (hardware)
or software component that converts electrical signals from a microphone
or amplifier into digital information. See
(Aviation Industry CBT Committee)
The term "AICC Compliant"
means that a training product complies with one or more of the 9 AICC
Guidelines & Recommendations (AGR's).
The first instructional
design phase. The purpose of this phase is to determine what skills and/or
knowledge the learner needs to do or know by identifying the probable causes
for the absence of performance and then recommending a solution.
Also known as target in
Netscape Composer, is the destination of a hyperlink within a Web page.
Anchors are common on single Web pages containing lots of text where
the text section titles appear at the top of the page and clicking
the link causes the browser to jump down the page and display the
selected portion of text. Can also refer to a familiar thing used as a
base for building new learning (see anchored instruction).
Providing a knowledge base
for students that they can build on; teaching and learning activities are
built around a familiar or understood situation and/or circumstance that
fosters exploration in order to solve a problem.
A process used to smooth
or remove jagged edges in computerized graphics.
(application program interface)
and tools for building software programs within an operating environment.
For example, getting a learning management system to 'talk to' a client
resource management system would require that a programmer build an API.
Attempts to simulate certain
characteristics and functionalities of the human brain with technology,
usually by imitating that which is normally associated with human reasoning
The height and width proportions
of images. Some programs allow you to maintain the aspect ratio when sizing
a picture, i.e. when you change the width,the height changes proportionally
so that the resulting image does not look distorted. In television, the
aspect ratio is 4:3, that is, 4 units across and 3 units down; in HDTV
it is 16:9.
Assessment is used to determine
the extent that leaning has taken place or to estimate the value of learning.
Assessment methods or tools can be a number of activities such as creating
a project, taking a test, writing a paper and more. Assessment is sometimes
confused with evaluation, which looks more at the efficiencies of whole
systems or mechanisms that make learning possible.
Any item, piece of equipment
or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified,
or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional
capabilities of children with disabilities.
Opposite to synchronous
communication, If events are asynchronous, they do not have to happen in
any particular order, and one event's occurrence does not depend on the
occurance of another event. For example, with threaded
discussion email or lists, learners can submit their comments at any
time; comments can be received in any order, and they do not all have to
be online at the same time. The major advantages are that the learning
is convenient to access for mature learners, the learning is collaborative,
and time away gives time for reflection.
An assessment strategy that
presents tasks reflecting the type of mastery demonstrated by experts in
real-world situations or environiments.
Programs used to create
prototypes or full multimedia productions, such as simulations and tutorials;
most of these programs have some point-and-click features to simplify development,
most require some knowledge of programming language concepts; popular authoring
software packages include Asymetrix ToolBook, Microsoft Visual Basic, Macromedia
Director and Authorware, and Hyperstudio; most use either a book and page
(i.e. - cards and stacks), timeline or flowchart metaphor.
A high-speed network connecting
regional and local area networks to the Internet.
The capacity of a network
or other data connection for carrying data information. It is measured
in cycles per second (hertz, Hz). Click
here for a very basic video on bandwidth. In digital transmission,
bandwidth is usually measured in bits per second
The number of transitions
per second made by a modem.
Any (preferrably observable
and measureable) activity a learner will be expected to exhibit after instruction.
It is the primary component of an objective.
Behaviourism deals with
regulating or controlling behaviour through stimulus-response reinforcements.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) is often associated with behaviourism theories.
By realizing what observable, measurable and controllable educational objectives
are, a teacher can control the stimuli so that the learner responds in
an anticipated way.
a combined variety of delivery mediums that support and augment each other.
Some of the main advantages to a blended learning approach include providing
more continous and/or focussed learning, better interaction with learners,
and reaching a broader learner base.
Journal-like entries posted
on a personal Web site for public viewing. They can also take on the attributes
of an asynchronous forum, containing comments,
links and discussions from a variety of contributors.
(Binary Large Object)
objects (or other data) stored as a collection of binary data in a database.
1956, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues developed a hierarchical chart
or taxonomy indicating the main types of learning. He identified six levels
within the cognitive domain. Although many taxonomic analyses of learning
behavior have been developed, Bloom’s has created a standard dialogue and
is still popular for identifying and creating educational objectives and
activities to facilitate better learning. See
expanded definition and chart.
A computing and telecommunications
industry specification that describes how mobile phones, personal digital
assistants (PDAs) and computers can interconnect and coordinate with each
other using a short-range wireless connection.
(also Boolean Operator)
A system of logic that,
when applied to searches, modifies search terms with the "operators" AND,
OR and NOT. Boolean operators allow you to broaden or narrow the range
of your search.
1) When you 'bookmark' a
page, you tell your Web browser to record that page's address (URL), so
that you can go back to it easily, without having to type in the URL again.
Bookmarks are called 'favorites' in Microsoft Internet Explorer. It keeps
your place, much like a bookmark in a book does. Most browsers have an
easy method of saving the URL to create a bookmark. 2) Microsoft Web editors
use the term bookmark to refer to a location within a hyperlink destination
within a Web page, referred to elsewhere as an anchor
At present, ‘brain-based’
theories offer us nothing more than a few implications for learning. For
example, one such theory known as the modal directionality principle, suggests
that the teaching of new information or structures should follow a right-brain
to left-brain mode flow (experiential to analytical). This suggests that
experiential forms of instruction belong to the initial learning stages
and should move progressively towards a more formal, analytical style in
the later stages. For the time being, this type of research can offer little
perspective on how we learn and gain understanding, but this may change
in a few decades or so.
A hyperlink connection to
another Web page which no longer works. Web pages are often moved or erased
and links to these pages sometimes do not reflect this change. A broken
link is a dead end which no longer opens the page to which it refers.
Software which lets you
view material designed for the World Wide Web. Microsoft Internet Explorer
and Netscape Navigator are the most commonly used Web browsers. A browser
usually displays documents created in Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML), the language used for creating Web pages.
An abbreviation for binary
digit, which is the smallest unit of computer storage. It is a binary
number, being either 1 or 0 (also referred to as 'on or off'). Grouped
together in larger numbers, bits become bytes. Typically, 8 bits comprise
a byte. One byte is equivalent to one alphaneumaric symbol or character.
raster file or graphic in which one or more bits are used to describe the
colour of each
pixel. See expanded definition of
formats and also resizing
bit mapped images.
The number of bits that
pass a given point in one second. For example, modems typically transfer
information over telephone lines at 56,000bps, or 56.6kps (kilobits per
board or BBS
An older term used for an
announcement and conferencing facility for electronic
discussions. Early systems were used via modem and phone line only,
and by the mid 1980's some BBSs began to work on networks as well.
When grouped together in
larger numbers, bits of computer information become bytes. Typically, 8
bits comprise a byte. One byte is equivalent to one alphaneumaric symbol
Video capture cards let
you record/digitize pictures for use with a computer. The pictures may
be still-images or movies. Once captured, the picture data is compressed
using a CODEC, with playback requiring CODEC-decompression.
With many capture cards, you can compress video in real-time, or 'on the
fly', provided you have a fast enough machine and sufficient defragmented
storage space on your hard drive. There are also software and/or hardware
capture combinations available, especially using FireWire
with digital video formats.
Collections of pictures/photographs.
Many application programs, such as PowerPoint, and Word contain built-in
A special file or memory
area (buffer) where data is stored temporarily before being copied to another
location. The clipboard can be used to copy data from one application to
another (i.e. – from Word Perfect to Maplewood). The clipboard can hold
only one item at a time and is flushed when you turn the computer off.
A term used for computer-based
teaching and learning at a geographical distance in either synchronous
or asynchronous modes.
(Content on Demand)
Immediate delivery of an
archived media object anywhere, anytime via a network. Variants include
audio on demand and video on demand.
A program and/or device
that COmpresses/DECompresses digital video. Cinepak, Quicktime,
REAL and Indeo (Intel) are examples of CODEC's.
Cognitivism is somewhat
the converse of behaviourism, as it deals more with how an individual’s
mind works, thinks, remembers and learns. It holds that learner-constructed,
relevant knowledge that is built upon prior knowledge is more likely to
be acquired and retained for practical use, and in time, the action that
this knowledge produces may become an entirely automatic program within
flexibility theory (CFT)
Some domains may contain
so much knowledge that the learner cannot possibly store or retrieve it
on demand (i.e. - medicine). By presenting knowledge
in a variety of ways or situations, learners acquire the ability to develop
cognitively flexible processing skills. New understanding is constructed
from prior knowledge, and the prior knowledge itself may be constructed
to suit a particular situation.
Collaborative learning is
based on a student-centered model in which learners are active participants
and share ideas in a community setting to deepen understanding, promote
the spirit of learning, and increase competence in working with others.
A collaborative learning environment encourages students to state their
opinions and differences while constructing beliefs and meaning (see also
of proximal development).
to the number of different colours that software or hardware is able to
display. Colour depth is related to the number of bits
allocated to each pixel, such as in bit
mapped graphics. See
The component of an objective
in an instructional design process that describes the situation and/or
environment in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior.
A system used to evaluate
skills, knowledge, and performance within an organization, and subsequently
introduce training, compensation, and recruiting programs.
(file) - process for reducing
file size, often called 'zipping' or 'archiving'. The resulting, compressed
file can be from a single, large file or can contain several files that
have been squeezed into a single file. The many-to-one compression makes
file group identification, copying, and transporting faster and easier.
(video) - Process which reduces the number of bytes required to store/transmit
digital video. Typical schemes involve comparing frames and coding-out,
or eliminating, inter-frame and intra-frame redundancies. The compression
may be done by software, hardware or a combination of the two. On playback,
the data is decompressed. See CODEC.
An individual's level of
knowledge, understanding, skill and/or performance required for a specific
A program from Netscape
which can be used to create and edit HTML documents.
Composer is a WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
editor, meaning that you can create the Web page as you want it to look
on the screen, and the program adds the HTML source code necessary to make
sure that the page looks right in a Web browser. Composer can be downloaded
free from Netscape.
An older but still viable
term dealing with the effective use of computers (typically in educational
institutions) to aid in the delivery of instruction. Approaches range from
drill-and-practice methods (1950's) to those that incorporate more
complex branching (1960's).
A term more commonly used
in industry than education for interactive instruction where the computer
provides the stimulus and the learner responds, resulting in progress toward
increased skills or knowledge. The term CBT is a more encompassing than
CAI, and may also include Web-based Training (WBT), and CD-ROM and DVD-based
Born on the heels of cognitivism,
constructivism suggests that knowledge and information are formed in mental
structures, which are tested and elaborated upon until the structures become
established. Learners are encouraged to construct their own understanding,
and validate their new perspectives through social negotiation and collaboration.
The skills required for
an individual to think logically and draw conclusions from facts and evidence
rather than accept opinions, conclusions and judgements from others.
A term used in computer
graphics referring to a method used to cut off the areas within or around
an image to make it the proper size or to remove unwanted parts. Most graphics
applications allow you to crop images.
A term used by networkers
to refer to the vast, worldwide environment full of information being transmitted
or stored by inter-networked computers. The term was coined by William
Gibson in his fantasy novel, Neuromancer to describe the world of computers,
and the society that gathers around them.
(Digital to Analog Converter)
A sound card (hardware)
or software component that converts or plays sounds stored in a digital
A device for taking the
information that you would normally see on a computer monitor and projecting
it onto to a larger movie screen. By projecting your work instead of displaying
it on a monitor, you can show a PowerPoint slide show, a Web page, or other
projects you've developed on the computer to a larger group of people.
The study of an audience
to determine its characteristics, for example, its age, wealth, education,
The second (usually) of
a general instructional design phase. The purpose of this phase is to define
and organize the information from which the instruction will be developed.
Typically the third phase
of an instructional systems design process (i.e. - ADDIE)
where the training materials are produced and validated according to the
and design requirements.
Software from Hewlett-Packard
used in conjunction with a scanner. Using DeskScan II, pictures or documents
can be "scanned in" to the computer (turned into digital files), edited,
and placed in one of the right formats to be posted on a Web page or inserted
into PowerPoint presentations.
in (dial up)
Using a phone line and modem
to establish a connection to a computer. Generally, people who use this
type of connection do not stay connected all the time; they only dial in
when they need to access the Internet. These types of connections are slower
than on-campus Ethernet connections.
A small window which appears
on the computer screen that either requires that you perform an action,
select an option, or provides you with information. For example, dialog
boxes ask you questions like, "Do you want to save this document?" or "Are
you sure that you want to exit this program?"
Just as a drawer is a space
where one keeps folders in a file cabinet, a directory is a place to store
folders on a computer. For example, you could have a directory called 'subjects'
that contains individual file folders filled with information about each
class that you teach. Directories contain folders (or subdirectories),
and folders contain files.
Associated with teaching
and learning at a geographical distance, and is considered to be more of
a delivery method than a philosophical approach. It may be considered a
subset of an open learning approach, referring to courses delivered off-campus
using either traditional or new technologies, and teachers may or may not
be present in the learning environment.
A software program from
Adobe which converts postscript files to portable document format (.pdf)
files. Postscript files have special coding, which instruct the printer
how to print the document.
Deals with a wide range
of activity in a continuum. At one end is a supplement to face-to-face
teaching and at the other end it is fully off campus, becoming defined
more as distance learning.
The blending of colors to
modify colors or produce new ones (usually to compensate for a limited
number of colors available in a palette).
per inch (dpi)
Printer resolution indicating
how many ink dots the printer can place in a one inch square. Typical resolutions
for printers range from 300 to 600 dpi for text and1200 x 600 dpi for graphics;
sometimes confused with ppi, or pixles per
Transferring files or information
from a remote computer or server to your computer( i.e. - you can download
files over the Internet).
By holding down the mouse
button over an object, you can move objects around on the screen, resize
borders and objects or select text in blocks.
A menu showing a list of
choices on a Web page. When you click on the down arrow next to the first
choice, the other choices on the list appear below, or 'drop down'. You
can then select the choice that you want. On the Internet, a drop down
menu will usually give you a choice of links to follow, or allow you to
post information on a form.
Subscriber Line (DSL)
Broadband technology that
transmits data over existing telephone lines.
Core Metadata Initiative (DC, DCMI)
The Dublin Core is a metadata
element set. It includes DCMI terms intended to facilitate the discovery
of resources. See the Dublin
Core Web Site for additional information.
The philosophies and practices
that seek to increase an individual’s general capacities to function and
thrive in society, including learning to think and learn.
A domain that creates systematic
solutions to educational problems. Often misinterpreted as an IT function,
it is a widely integrated field combining expertise and practice in educational
psychology and philosophy, instructional design, multimedia, hard and soft
technology systems and organizational management to create or manage learning
resources and environments.
Can be thought of as the
use of networked computer technology to connect learners to various individuals
and/or resources, which has the potential to create more and varied opportunities
to meet (specific) learning needs.
Electronic discussion provides
a way for topical discussions outside of a classroom. Students can post
messages to one another and to the instructor electronically. A number
of tools can make this easier, including newsgroups and listservs. Also
referred to as a threaded discussion list, (electronic) bulletin board
or asynchronous chat forum.
Abbreviation commonly used
for electronic mail. A letter or memo sent to a person or group electronically
over the Internet or other network.
A user's electronic mailbox
name or address, needed for linking the sender of email and the recipient.
Characterized by the '@' sign in the address (i.e. - firstname.lastname@example.org)
Programs and documents can
be sent attached or appended to email messages. These attachments are not
part of the message, and must be read or viewed separately. Attachments
do not have to be text documents; any computer file (images, programs,
spreadsheets, etc.) can be attached to email. Most email programs allow
you to attach various files.
One method to facilitate
discussion outside of class. Students subscribe to a group and send messages
to all other students in the group. The list is like an electronic
bulletin board, so students need to check it periodically to read the
embedded performance support
Electronic job aids that are used to improve job performance rather than learning because they are used to direct immediate performance.
Combinations of keyboard
characters which enable electronic correspondents to convey non-verbal
cues. Hundreds are currently known. The most popular is the 'happy face'
can help people understand multiple meanings by adding some emotion to
A method of securing privacy
on a network through the use of complex algorithmic codes. For example,
email that is not encrypted can be viewed by anyone having access.
behaviors or skills
Specific competencies or
skills a learner must have mastered before entering a certain instructional
The philosophy dealing with
the acquisition of knowledge, especially in regards to its methods, validity
Typically, the fifth phase
of an instructional design process. The purpose of this phase is determine
the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase can actually
be conducted during and/or between all other phases.
A program in the Microsoft
Office Suite that creates spreadsheets. Initially developed for accounting,
spreadsheets like Excel are now used for a variety of other projects which
require that data be organized in a table or grid format.
A guiding role that allows
learners to take a more active role in learning. For example, facilitators
can assist learners in making connections between theory and their own
knowledge and experiences by encouraging them to create new solutions,
challenging their assumptions, and asking probing questions. IN this way,
learning can becvome more meaningful and engrained. Facilitators and moderators
are present in most online learning scenarios.
Relates to the support for
educators and educational institutions within compliance of Intellectual
Property Rights laws (copyright). It refers to an agreement between industry
(the copyright holders), education and the government allowing limited
use without the purchase of materials.
Abbreviation for ‘Frequently
Asked Questions’. A document (often a hypertext document)
containing common questions and answers on a particular website or topic.
These are the three letters
which come after the dot in the name of a file, and tell your computer
what kind of file it is. Examples are .jpg (an image file), .doc (a Microsoft
Word document), .txt (a text file), .html (a Web document).
The size of the file is
the amount of disk storage space taken up taken up by a file (measured
in bytes). Generally, smaller files will load (appear on the screen) faster
on the World Wide Web, and it is to your advantage to make files as small
as possible. Certain file formats are preferred for Internet use as they
the file size.
Hardware and/or software
used to restrict access on a network. For example, many schools restrict
access to unpleasant Internet sites through a firewall, and also use it
to protect sensitive files on the school's server.
An IEEE 1394 bus for connecting
devices to your computer. FireWire provides a single plug-and-socket connection
with fast data transfer speeds up to 400 Mbps (megabits per second). Ideal
for capturing or transferring digital video.
Measurements of learning
that are given frequently during the course of instruction that are designed
to provide information and feedback to an instructor about how the students
Measurment made frequently
during the course of instruction designed to provide information and feedback
to an instructor about a course of learning for the purpose of learning,
monitoring, developing, and improving.
Software that is available
free of charge for personal use. Freeware can be downloaded
from the Internet.
A Microsoft program used
to create and edit HTML documents. It can be used to
create large complex Web sites. FrontPage is a WYSIWYG
(what-you-see-is-what-you-get) editor, meaning that you can create the
Web page exactly as you want it to look on the screen, and the program
adds the HTML source code necessary to make sure that the page looks right
in a Web browser.
(File Transfer Protocol)
A method of transfering
files from one computer to another. Usually, it is used to copy files from
a personal computer to a server, so that they can be accessed by others.
There are several common software programs that are used to transfer files
(depending on which operating system your computer is running): WS_FTP,
Internet Neighborhood, or Fetch. FTP is often used to download files from
Internet sites, many of which allow users to log in anonymously and download
public repositories of material (programs, images, text, etc.). These sites
are called 'anonymous ftp sites'.
Nine Events of Instruction
A method for organizing
instructional strategies within a lesson. The Nine Events of Instruction
1) Gain Attention
(.gif - Graphic Interchange Format)
2) Inform Learners of the
3) Stimulate Recall of Prior
4) Present the Stimulus
5) Provide Learner Guidance
6) Elicit Performance
7) Provide Informative Feedback
8) Assess Performance
9) Enhance Transfer and
of the most common file formats for images and graphics on the World Wide
Web. Images can have various bit-depth, and GIF89A
files support transparency features (i.e. - transparent backgrounds). Not
preferred for photographic images.
of computer storage equivalent to approximately 1 billion bytes
or 1,000 megabytes. This measurement is often used
when measuring the capacity of hard drives or other storage devices.
‘gooey’ – an acronym for ‘Graphical User Interface’ which refers
to the organization of the (graphical) symbols on a computer screen that
allow a user to interact with a program.
A program launched by your
browser which allows you use special kinds of files. These applications
commonly let you see and hear video and audio files, as well as view specialized
text files or virtual reality models. Shockwave and RealAudio are examples
of helper applications. Another common term for these programs is 'plug
ins', as they supplement the capabilities of your browser, and only
run when they are needed to display files.
1 hertz equals 1 cycle per
second, measuring the frequency of electric vibrations. The human range
of hearing is approximately 20 - 20,000 Hz.
The study or gaining of
knowledge through (scientific) investigations and data gathering.
The first, title or main
page that your browser will open when you access a Web address (URL). The
home page generally serves as a gateway to the rest of the Web site by
providing links to the other pages.
A program released by Claris
that is used to create and edit HTML (World Wide Web) documents.
Markup Language for creating electronic documents for the World Wide Web.
HTML incorporates a standard group of TAGS that tell a Web browser how
to display the pages it receives. HTML codes (called 'tags') tell
your browser how to arrange text and images on the computer screen. You
can write the code yourself using any text editor (i.e. Notepad or Microsoft
Word), or can use any one of several commercially available HTML editors
that create the code automatically when you create a Web document.
A document or Web page that
is written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
A program used to edit documents
which are written in Hypertext Markup Language. Common programs are Microsoft
FrontPage, FrontPage Express, Claris Home Page, Adobe GoLive and Netscape
(hypertext transfer protocol)
The standard protocol or
method used to transfer data in HTML format from a server to a remote computer.
Web addresses often begin with http://, indicating that the documents you
will access are using this protocol.
Humanistic learning theories
deal with guiding students towards physical, mental, emotional, and moral
development, where self-actualization is the goal (A.
Maslow). Similar to social
constructivist theories, students discover their personal interests
and develop their potential as happy, healthy individuals by relating within
a community. The emphasis is on authentic human relationships and the development
of self-esteem, creativity and critical thinking skills.
A system for storing information
using embedded references to other pages, sounds, and graphics used
on the WWW. Interactive programs in which information is stored in a number
of different media and cross-linked so that it can be retrieved and presented
in a variety of ways that amplify meaning for the user; hypermedia involves
the presentation of information in media that most effectively communicates
its content, and provides the user with the means to sequence information
in ways that are most appropriate to a given task.
A popular user-friendly
multimedia authoring program that allows a user to combine images, text,
graphics, video and audio into interactive programs or presentations. Hyperstudio
uses a 'card' and 'stack' or 'page' and 'book' metaphor.
Text or images on a Web
page that, when clicked with a mouse, cause your browser to load another
page of HTML. Because a simple mouse click allows the user to easily go
from one page of hypertext to another, these pages are said to be 'hyperlinked'.
The connections or links are denoted, generally, as underlined,
coloured text. The documents or Web pages to which the hypertext
connects may be local or remote (i.e. - in a different country).Hyperlinks
that are images often take the form of 'buttons.'
A small graphic symbol that
represents a program, file, or folder on a computer. Clicking on an icon
with a mouse generally causes the program to run, the folder to open, or
the file to be displayed (if possible).
An invisible (on a Web browser)
grid that is overlayed on top of an existing image on a Web page (usually
a .gif file or a .jpg file), which
allows the image to serve as a hyperlink to another
Web page. Several different hyperlinks can be mapped onto different parts
of a single image.
(OnCue) is a software application that allows for the production and
online delivery of synchronized video and/or audio with PowerPoint combined
with searchable text, dynamic indexing and navigation. What is really unique
about this product is that the presentations do not require any third-party
plug-ins or special software to work over the Internet.
Typically, the fourth phase
of a general instructional design process. The instruction is actually
carried out and delivered to the learners during this phase.
Global Learning Consortium
Develops and promotes the
adoption of open technical specifications for interoperable learning technology.
Several IMS specifications have become worldwide de facto standards for
delivering learning products and services. IMS
specifications and related publications are available to the public
at no charge.
(Instructional Systems Approach To Teaching)
This instructional design
process is comprised of terminal and intermediate learning performance
objectives, assessment, feedback, teaching
strategies, and learning activities.
The processes that facilitate
designed changes in an individual's capacities, typically in knowledge
design process (ID)
A systematic approach to
developing instruction. Although there are many variations, the process
typically includes five phases: analysis, design,
and evaluation (ADDIE).
A specialist usually well
versed in learning theory and instructional design processes who designs
educational and training content around measurable objectives.
Clear statements of behavior
that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instruction. The procedures
applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills
and their subordinate skills and the information required for a student
to achieve the goal is known as instructional analysis.
Refers to an application
or system that provides information in response to the user’s input. There
is a greater potential for students to become more engaged in active learning
with a highly interactive computer program or environment.
appropriate technologies to achieve learning expectations; combining the
use of technology with teaching and learning strategies to improve or enhance
learning opportunities and outcomes.
A (slang) term for an Internet
A global network linking
millions of computers for communications purposes. The Internet was first
developed in 1969 for the U.S. military and gradually grew to include educational
and research institutions. In the last five years, connections to, and
use of, the Internet have mushroomed to include almost 400 million users,
primarily due to the popularity of Web surfing and email.
A nationwide (U.S.) project
to develop the next generation of computer network applications to facilitate
the research and education missions of universities.
A popular Web browser, created
by Microsoft, used to view pages on the World Wide Web.
(Integrated Services Digital Network)
A telecommunications standard
allowing communications channels (i.e. – telephone lines) to carry voice,
video, and data simultaneously.
A programming language created
by Sun Microsystems which allows the user to create programs which run
well in a networked environment (such as the World Wide Web). Java programs
are commonly called "applets" and can be used to add anything from calculators
to animated images to Web sites.
A type of programming code
make your Web pages interactive in a variety of ways. For example: telling
users whether they've filled out a form correctly, displaying animated
images, or allowing images to change when users touch them with the mouse
(Joint Photographic Experts Group)
Commonly referred to as
J-PEG, this is a commonly used file format for (compressed) photographic
images on the World Wide Web. When creating a .jpg file, the amount
of image compression is variable, sacrificing more image quality with more
compression selected. See
expanded definitions on image file formats. See also information on
bit mapped images
One thousand bytes
of data; one floppy disc stores approximately 1.5 kilobytes of data.
Concepts developed by Donald
Kirkpatrick describing four levels of evaluation have become a standard
for measuring the effectiveness of training.
Labour is becoming more
knowledge-based, and some workers have been displaced, or re-integrated
into the workforce in new ways. Those with knowledge of how to use and
incorporate new technologies are highly sought after, and they typically
have learned how to update and maintain their skills through lifelong learning.
Technology can play an important role in this process.
knowledge management (KM)
An approach to capturing and using knowledge (social know-how) to improve organizational outcomes (i.e. - performance, innovation, etc.) and learning by making knowledge assets available for transfer and reuse.
(Local Area Network)
localized network such as those found in schools and office buildings (or
groups of buildings) that connects a number of computers, usually to a
content management system (LCMS)
An application or set of
applications that manage the creation, storage, use, and reuse of learning
content. LCMS's typically store content in granular forms such as reusable
management system (LMS)
Learning Management Systems
consist of software that connects users with resources, and may offer a
number of features such as chat facilities, testing, course notes, quizzes,
and student-tracking. WebCT and Blackboard are examples of popular LMS’s.
small short piece of instruction that is still large enough to teach an
entire concept and/or produce a learning outcome. The granularity or size
can vary from a simple multimedia clip or multiple choice test to an entire
course. Also referred to as 'knowledge bits' or 'knowledge chunks'. The
idea behind reusable learning objects (RLO's), is that these smaller units
of instruction can be easily, affordably and quickly combined for more
specific and customized learning. New meta data
schema can be stored separate from the object, useful when managing learning
object repositories (i.e. - MERLOT,
Resource iNterchange (LRN)
A reference implementation
of the IMS Content Packaging and Metadata Specifications to streamline
and simplify the way that eLearning products are made. The LRN implementation
of the IMS specification accelerates the adoption of eLearning by making
it easier to create, customize, update, and share online learning content
A learning style approach
to learning emphasizes the fact that individuals may perceive and process
information in very different ways. In considering the manner in which
a learner perceives, interacts, and responds in a technology-based (or
any other) learning environment, we can think about how an individual learns
(cognitive), what motivates the learning (affective), and how they respond
to their environment (physiological). One of many theories on how people
learn is the multiple intelligence theory.
A learning environment in
which learners are encouraged to choose their own learning goals and projects
according to the paramters set and their personal interests and learning
style. This approach incorporates the theory that individual's have a natural
inclination to learn, learn better when they work on real-world or authentic
tasks and benefit from interacting with others.
In order to remain viable
and survive in a labor market driven by rapidly changing demands (knowledge
economy), today's workers must know how to quickly update their knowledge
and skills on a continual basis throughout their lifetimes.The present
state of information communication technology is clearly posed to meet
this growing need, and the paradigm that has emerged for education in this
century is based on the attributes of networked online learning. It enables
the ability of individuals to learn anything, anywhere, anytime - by, from
or with anyone.
Denoting a straight sequencial
fashion, as in one after another in a straight line. Many digital technologies
are 'non-linear', such as in non-linear video editing, where the program
does not have to be assembled in a progressive order.
Electronic mail-based discussion
groups. Users submit their names to the LISTPROC server via email and are
added to the list, Users then receive all email messages that are sent
to the list. LISTSERVs are a convenient way for people to electronically
discuss a common interest.
Area Network - (LAN)
The degree of knowledge
and information acquisition, transformation, assimilation and retention
in a learner seems to be dependent upon the significance or meaningfulness
of it all to the learner. Thus, meaningful learning is concerned more with
creating true or deeper understandings, rather than behavioural
Is basically data about
data. It is the term for information that most commonly refers to descriptive
information about Web resources. For example, detailed information about
the content of a Web page can be stored in and retrieved from the page
code, or new meta data schema can be stored separate from the Web page
or object, such as in learning object repositories (i.e. - MERLOT,
An individual's ability
to consider, regulate and plan their own thinking and learning. This includes
reviewing one's own current and previous knowledge, identifying gaps in
that knowledge, planning strategies, determining the relevance of new information,
and revising skills, knowledge and/or attitudes accordingly.
An tag identifying the contents
of a Web page or site. Information commonly found in the metatag includes
copyright information, key words for search engines, and formatting descriptions
of the Web page. With XML, metatags can include more
data, ideal for use when searching for things such as learning
MPEG (Motion Picture Experts
Group) - a hardware CODEC for compressing video files. Current ISO Standards:
1. MPEG1 - 1/4 broadcast quality translating to 352x240pixels (consumer-quality
video). 2. MPEG2 - Full-motion quality translating to 704x480 pixels and
30 fps (broadcast-quality video). 3. MPEG3 - The latest.
A function that allows users
to send email to the authors or sponsors of a Web
site just by clicking on a hyperlink. This function
will not work if the browser does not support the
ability to send mail.
1,000,000 bytes or 1,000
kilobytes of data; typical computer hard drive sizes can store anywhere
from 1 to 4 megabytes of data.
mode (e-learning delivery)
In mixed mode, a large percentage
of instruction may be carried out online, but not all instruction.
In addition to the activities in adjunct delivery
mode, more customized material can be delivered online, and interaction
may take place through threaded
discussion and email. Classes may only meet traditionally on occasion to
review material and discuss difficulties.
discussion list where the list moderator (usually the person who founded
the list) checks the relevance or appropriateness of each message before
sending it on to the rest of the list members.
(Mud Object Oriented)
An implementation of a MUD
system, which is a free software download in the public domain.
A standard for video
compression and decompression defined by the Moving Pictures Expert
Group. MPEG compression can reduce file size up to 95% so that it can be
delivered or streamed over a network.
(Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension)
An online or cyberspace
environment where users can take on identities and interact with one another.
Originally, MUDs were adventure games, but took on new meaning when used
in creating educational role-playing communities. See also MOO.
The transmission of information
to more than one recipient at a time. For example, streaming
video in real-time as it is happening over the Internet to multiple viewers.
The combined or related
use of graphic images, text, sound, animation and video on a computer platform
(or other electronic device).
Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor
of education at Harvard University, developed the theory of multiple intelligences
in 1983. He proposes eight different intelligences to account for the wider
range of human potential in individuals. The gist of this theory is that
it can provide eight different potential pathways to learning. See
Navigation - the process
of moving through or finding one's way around the contents of a multimedia
or software program (i.e. - buttons, responses, etc.).
A popular Web browser,
created by Netscape, used to view pages on the World Wide Web
A problem identification
process that looks at the difference between "what is" and "what should
be" for a particular situation (discrepancy approach). An objective is
a statement of what the learners will be expected to do or know when
they have completed a specified course of instruction. A goal is something
that is observable and measurable.
The informal rules of behavior
while communicating or resource sharing on the Internet. The 'manners'
used on the Internet.
One method to facilitate
discussion outside of class. Students subscribe to a group and send
messages to all other students in the group. The list is like a bulletin
board in electronic form, so students need to check it periodically to
read the new messages.
(Optical Character Recognition)
The method used by a computer
to convert scanned in pages of text into electronic text documents. With
OCR, a user can scan in a page from a book, and the computer and software
will recognize the characters and create a file containing the same text
as the scanned page. The finished file can then be opened in any word
processor. By recognizing whole pages of text, OCR saves time by not
having to type existing pages of text into the computer for manipulation
- see Web Ontology Language
Similar to distance learning,
except that open learning may be a little more in that it provides certain
freedoms for the learner. Learning activities arise from the learner, as
it is based more on their individual needs, rather than those of a teacher
or an institution. This 'openness' reflects in more freedom in regards
to location, timing, costs and access as well as in methods of study and
The available color selections,
usually ranging from 16 colors to 16.7 million; color resolution comparison.
There are often color shifts from platform to platform that can have undesirable
results. Macintosh and Windows share only 216 out of 256 colors. See http://www.adobe.com/newsfeatures/palette/,
for information on 216-color palettes.
model or example used to denote a structure or system. A paradigm shift
would indicate a move to a different structure or system. In referrence
to educational technology, there can be learning paradigms, design paradigms,
(portable document format)
A file format created by
Adobe, initially to provide a standard form for storing and editing printed
publishable documents. Because documents in .pdf format can easily be seen
and printed by users on a variety of computer and platform types, they
are very common on the World Wide Web. To view files of this type, download
the Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free
Each objective is a description
of performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider
them competent. Each objective is specified as a measurable behavior,
and an acceptable level of correctness or behavior has also been specified.
Performance objectives refer to course goals that specify the information
and/or skills to be mastered AND specify what students will do to demonstrate
Observation of an individual's
actual performance or examples of performances according to pre-established
performance criteria. Individuals are assessed on the process used as well
as the final results. Often referred to as "show that you know" assessment.
A programming language used
on the World Wide Web. It is designed to be used for functions which are
too complicated for a browser to run, but not worth the effort of programming
into a more complicated language (like C).
(Personal Home Page)
scripting language that enables writing simple scripts right in HTML
browser-dependant. It can replace cgi-scripting with Perl
in many occasions.
An expensive and powerful
software program from Adobe which is used to create and manipulate images.
Pictures can be dramatically changed using PhotoShop: colors changed, images
sharpened, parts of the picture removed or moved.
= Pixel. The tiny dots comprising a picture on a computer monitor or television
screen. Look VERY closely at your TV to see tiny pixels.
per inch (ppi)
The number of the smallest
parts of an image that a computer screen or CRT can display in one square
inch. Most monitors display 72 ppi, which means that any higher resolution
is not noticed and wasted in file size. Viewers will not be able
see any difference in resolution higher than 72 ppi (MAC - up to 96 ppi
on PC's), and the larger file size will slow the download time. See
A program that compresses
files so that they will take up less storge space in a disk. Many files
are stored 'zipped' or 'compressed' on servers,
to decrease the time you spend downloading them. After they are on your
computer, you need to 'unzip' them to be able to run them (using pkunzip,
WinZip, or other programs) . Some compressed files will uncompress automatically
after you download them.
Scripts, programs or utilities
that add certain functionality to an exsisting program. For example, the
Macromedia Shockwave plug-in allows for special content to be displayed
within a Web browser, and plug-ins for filters and special effects can
be used in Adobe Photoshop. Also referred to as 'helper
Typically, a portal provides
a personalized, single point of access to a range of network services,
but it can also include a variety of communication and collaboration tools,
and even a wider range of tools for creating, cataloguing, distributing
and tracking content.
A program in the Microsoft
Office suite which allows users to create 'slide show like' presentations
(and handouts). Users create a series of PowerPoint slides by adding
text, colour, images, sounds, and movies.
A learning approach where
a problem is presented and knowledge is developed as a consequence of trying
to solve it.
A whole or partially functional
version of a new process and/or product that allows for conception, testing,
revision, and/or evaluation. In e-learning for example, one module or section
of a course may be completed to provide the means to analyze the structure,
content and/or process before the entire project is completed.
A server that functions
as a firewall, which can screen incoming and outgoing messages and other
A type of sound and video
or playback format for computers, which is has become an industry standard.
It can also be played as it downloads from the Internet, or streamed with
an appropriate plug-in. For more information, see
Quicktime site. A lesson on how to embed
a Quicktime movie in a Web page is available from shawmultimedia.com
(login: 'learning' password: 'learning').
(Reusable Learning Object)
for Real-time, live audio and/or video on the Web. RealAudio highly compresses
sound files to ship down the Internet. After front-loading a portion of
the recording, the receiving player starts, pulling in remaining portions.
This lets users begin listening or viewing as the file is being downloaded,
hence the term "real-time", rather having to wait until downloading is
complete. You can take a closer look at www.real.com.
or helper application developed by Real Networks,
that allows a user to hear audio and video saved in various file formats.
Realplayer also plays streaming media, that is,
audio or video that is being broadcast live over the internet. Clicking
on some hyperlinks will cause your browser to
An application from Real
Networks that allows users to record audio files and present them on the
World Wide Web.
A term that originally referred
to teaching children with learning difficulities, it is now viewed as a
(repetative) process for raising a learner's knowledge and skills relative
to the learning objectives selected. Methods can include basic drill-and-practice
exercises up to more advanced interactive feeback.
The clarity or quality of
a displayed/printed image or sound. With graphic images, the more pixels/dots
per square inch (dpi), the finer the detail
(higher resolution). In audio, the more samples per second, the higher
the resolution. See also ppi.
When coverting video or
audio to digital format, digitizing software picks out points along the
wave and records or takes 'snapshots' of these points. These individual
'snapshots' can then be replayed in much the same way that motion pictures
are recreated from the individual frames. The higher the sampling rate,
the more snapshots/points per unit time, the more accurate the computer's
representation of the original sound wave. See
An instructional technique
in which complex tasks are broken down into smaller tasks and modelled
for the learner only up to a certain point. For example, instructor or
other support is provided at each level of complexity and then gradually
removed. In this manner, learners can accomplish as much of a task
as possible without external assistance.
The process of turning pages
from notebooks, typed documents, and photographs into digital images. After
images have been digitized, they can be placed on World Wide Web pages.
A scanner (machine) and scanning software software are required.
A computer device which
'reads' text or graphics and converts them into digitized documents/files.
Most scanners work by lighting an image and measuring the light reflected
through it. The scanner them converts the reflections into distinct voltages
which are, in turn, transformed into patterns of dots. The resolution or
clarity of the image is measured in dots per inch.
- (Shareable Content Object)
A SCO is an object such
as a graphic, piece of text, animation, audio or video clip, etc. that
conforms to the SCORM specifications. By compiling SCO's, you can create
- (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)
A collection of specifications
adapted from multiple sources to help ensure interoperability, accessibility
and reusability of Web-based learning content. Purchasers of LMS's
or LCMS's may want to ensure SCORM compliancy to accomodate the easy transfer
of e-learning programs or RLO's from one vendor's system
A tool or program which
allows keyword searching for relevant sites or information on the
Internet. General and topic-specific search engines are prevalent today,
for example, Education World, WebCrawler, Infoseek, Dogpile,
Lycos, and Yahoo are examples
of search engines. Meta search engines such as ixquick
and Google select the
most popular sites from a variety of other search engines.
A situation or environment
where the learner has control over a variety of factors, including what,
when and even how learning takes place. This is a typical method for adult
or lifelong learning.
inventor Tim Berners-Lee views the future Web as a web of data, like a
global database. The semantic Web infrastructure will allow both machines
and humans to make deductions and organize information through various
components. Semantic interoperability refers to the ability to search
for digital resources across distributed databases whose metadata schemas
have been mapped to one another.
A computer which is designed
to be accessed by many other computers. Servers can be attached to local
or wide area networks and/or be hooked up to the Internet. Servers can
control the distribution of email, store Web pages, and provide access
to files that are shared by many users. The term 'server-side' refers to
applications and other things that are stored on the server as opposed
to the desktop.
Copyrighted software that
is available for personal use for a small fee, and often downloadable
from the Internet.
An electronic imitation.
SimCity is a game in which a simulation of a real city is created on a
computer. Chemical interactions can be simulated with animated 3D graphical
representations. Simulations are helpful when things are too big, too small,
too expensive, or too complicated to bring into a classroom. Simulation
software can be used to create real-life representations of situations
on a computer.
Compares a person's existing
skills to the skills required for a specific task. The difference between
the two identify a skill gap.
Many word processors will
automatically indent block quotes ten spaces, and will provide a different
character for a open quotation mark, and a close quotation mark.
A disparaging term for regular
Taken from the Monte Python
routine (SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, SPAM); annoying junk or garbage postings widely
distributed via email. Spamming is inappropriate behavior on any network
and there are usually consequences for anyone caught doing it.
(sometimes referred to simply as spreadsheets) are computer programs that
let you create and manipulate spreadsheets electronically. In a spreadsheet
application, each value sits in a cell. Data can be defined in each cell
and how different cells depend on one another. The relationships between
cells are called formulas, and the names of the cells are called labels.
Anything that provokes a
from a learner. In an e-learning program, this could be anything from a
photograph (visual stimulus) to a series of buttons to press with various
Any type of media (radio,
television, virtual reality presentation, etc.) which can be view using
a plug-in (RealNetworks's RealPlayer, or Microsoft's NetCast for example).
The streaming media can be pre-recorded or even broadcast live, and can
be from anywhere in the world. By using this feature, you will be able
to enable view foreign broadcasts or listen to a radio station from across
A division in the way that
a computer organizes information. The drawer of a file cabinet is analogous
to a directory; it is a space where one keeps folders. In this analogy,
each of these folders would be a subdirectory. Subdirectories contain many
different files (and sometimes other subdirectories); for instance, if
you had a directory on you computer called 'classes', it might contain
subdirectories like 'assignments', 'exams' and 'tests', and each
of these subdirectories could contain files.
When events are synchronous,
they are happening at the same time in real time. For example, in synchronous
communication, users can discuss issues in ‘real time chat’. Videoconferencing
is another example of synchronous communication.
for 'systems operator'. This is the person responsible for operating and/or
monitoring a network. Electronic discussion groups
often have a sysops to manage postings.
A method of digital transmission
usually implemented over telephone circuits. Each T1 signal has the capacity
to carry 24 simultaneous telephone conversations or data transmissions.
T1 bandwidth is 1.544 megabits per second.
A digital channel which
communicates at a significantly faster rate than T-1.
Two way electronic communication
between two or more groups in separate locations via audio, video, and/or
computer systems. See also ‘video conferencing’.
The standard protocol for
connecting one computer to another (usually, one of these computers will
be a server running Unix). Telnet allows you to connect to another computer,
input commands, and run programs.
The behavior that the learner
is expected to demonstrate after the learning takes place.
Commonly used on newsgroups
or listservs, these are indexes which allow a user to follow one particular
subject in a series of email messages. Because email lists often receive
a large number of messages on diverse topics, it can often be difficult
to follow a single discussion. When messages are threaded, all messages
are grouped together by topic making it easier to follow a single line
A tiny copy (about the size
of a thumbnail) of a larger image. Generally, thumbnails appear on Web
pages to give users a general idea of what the image looks like before
they choose to spend time waiting for the larger version to download.
Clicking on a thumbnail image generally causes the larger image to load
Promotes the acquisition
of specific knowledge, skills and/or attitudes that are typically work
or vocation related.
A very popular operating
system on the Internet. Unix is a system favoured by computer programmers,
and is characterized by arcane, unintuitive commands. Mastering Unix requires
where messages are not censored in any way. Anyone can post any message
to the list, and it will be received by all of the list members. Although
there is no moderator, most unmoderated lists have a very complicated system
of etiquette (called Netiquitte) that determines which responses are appropriate.
It helps to read the frequently asked questions file (FAQ) of a newsgroup
before posting a message to make sure that you are conforming to the appropriate
A method for uncompressing
files on a PC after downloading them from the Internet.
Many files are stored on servers in a compressed format, making them take
up less disk space, and reducing the time it takes for you to download
them. You must decompresses these files to make them usable by your computer.
WinZip and pkunzip are popular free software programs that will uncompress
The process of transferring
a file from a personal computer 'up' to a server,
ususally to make the file available to others on the Internet.
(Uniform Resource Locator)
The address for documents
on the World Wide Web. Addresses that begin with "http://" or "ftp://"
usually indicate that they are URLs.
A format for a internet
newsgroups. Usenet groups can be accessed by anyone, and contain informal
messages on a variety of topics, as well as news and information from wire
services such as the Associated Press and Reuter's News Agency.
A 'video teleconference'
including two way video, ideal for distance
learning applications. Desktop video conferencing can be done over
the Internet with software such as ‘Net Meeting’, but it requires high
for even minimum resolution. Video teleconferencing
units use 1 to 3 telephone lines (ISDN)
for improved image and sound quality.
An adjective used to describe
a phenomenon which is similar in essence or effect to another phenomenon
but varies in form or substance (i.e. - flight simulator). Virtual
reality mimicks the real world through various visual, tactile, auditory
and/or other artefacts.
A variety of software packages
that allow the creation of models of real world systems. These models are
often three-dimensional in nature.
Software that is intended
to be used on the World Wide Web.
Interactive forms that allows
individuals to post information online in response to questions created
through various software, freeware and shareware. Most LMS's
have quizz and test funtionality built-in.
term referring to the convergence of distance
learning, computer-aided instruction and Internet
technologies in using the World Wide Web
(WWW) for training and instruction.
A video or audio visual
recording of an event that is digitized and streamed
in real time or made available for download on the World
A meeting of participants
from disparate physical or geographic locations that's held in a synchronous
environment over the Internet including any combination of text, audio
Ontology Language - (OWL)
The OWL Web Ontology Language
is designed to process the content of information so that it is more presentable,
understandable and/or meaningful to humans. This is related to the principles
underpinning the semantic Web.
A synchronous online learning
event (Web-seminar) broadcast over the Internet. Webinars may or may not
utilyze two way online communication.
A Web-based learning activity.
As defined by Bernie Dodge, San Diego State University and creator of this
concept, "A WebQuest
is an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information
used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners'
time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and
to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis and
A type of Website ideal for collaborative writing that allows users to easily add, remove, or edit content (i.e. - http://wikipedia.org).
A program, published by
WinZip, used to
uncompress files after downloading
them on a computer. Many files are stored on servers in a compressed format,
making them take up less disk space, and reducing the time it takes for
you to download them. WinZip decompresses these files, and makes them usable
by your computer.
A (Microsoft) term for pre-designed
elements (such as templates) in a software package that aid the user. For
example, a 'letter wizard', within a word processing application, would
lead the user through the steps of easily producing different types of
Word is a Microsoft word
processing program. More recent versions of Word (Word 97 and higher)
can also publish word files as HTML documents, so that they can be used
on the World Wide Web.
Wide Web (WWW or The Web)
A graphical interface for
the Internet, composed of Internet servers that provide access to documents
that in turn provide hyperlinks to other documents, multimedia files, and
(Write Once Read Many)
A type of data storage system
that allows information to be saved to it only once, thereby archiving
permanent data. WORM disks must be read by the same kind of drive that
wrote them, making it difficult for the use of this technology to become
widely accepted. The acronym can also refer to a type of malicious computer
(File Transfer Protocol)
A popular application used
to move files from one place to another. Most commonly, files are moved
or uploaded from a computer's hard drive or storage
device to a server, which makes files available to others to see on the
World Wide Web (See File Transfer Protocol).
(What You See is What You Get)
A type of text editor that
allows you to edit a document and see it as it will more or less appear
in its final version. Most word processors are WYSIWIG, because they show
you on the screen what a document will look like when you print it. Most
HTML editors also fall into this category, because they allow you to edit
a World Wide Web document and see it as it would look on a Web browser.
language for use on the World Wide Web. XML provides more versatility and
power than HTML, and the number of applications that support the use of
XML is growing. Instead of using tags to describe
how a document should look, it uses tags to describe the content of the
of proximal development
Russian social scientist
Lev Votgotsky (1896 - 1934) put forward the idea that the gap or zone between
the learner’s actual developmental level and potential developmental level
can be narrowed through interaction/collaboration with peers of greater
are disks to use in special drives which hold more data than standard 3
1/2 inch floppy disks. Zip drives are commonly used to back up hard drives
and large documents.