Bloom's Taxonomy to Analysis and Design
Most theorists have
categorized the different types of learning into three domains:
such as understanding, intellect and skills, falls within the cognitive
domain. Included in this domain is metacognition, the ability to monitor,
contemplate and even change one’s own thought processes. Developing metacognition
is an important part of adult learning.
In 1956, educational
Bloom and his colleagues developed a hierarchical chart or taxonomy
indicating the main types of learning. He identified various levels within
each domain. For example, at the lowest cognitive level, there is simple
recall or recognition of facts. The mental levels become increasingly more
complex and at the highest level we find evaluation. Although many taxonomic
analyses of learning behavior have been developed, Bloom’s taxonomy of
learning has created a standard dialogue and is still popular for identifying
and creating educational objectives and activities to facilitate better
What taxonomies can
do in fact, is make the designer think about how to optimize instruction
with the organization, dissemination and construction of learning and associated
TO USE THIS TABLE
One way of planning
effective education would be to use the verb examples below that are associated
with the various levels of learning in creating goals, performance objectives
and tasks. This can help you to determine how learners can learn/demonstrate
new skills and/or knowledge through the selection of various learning technologies
and appropriate media.
working at this level can remember and recall information ranging from
concrete to abstract.
arrange, define, describe, duplicate, enumerate, identify, label,
list, match, memorize, name, order, outline, recall, recite, recognize.
recollect, relate, repeat, reproduce, select, state
you see, hear, find, notice?
you make... ?
you get from here to downtown?
are able to understand and make use of something communicated, and can
translate, interpret and extrapolate the communication.
classify, construct, convert, decode, defend, define, describe, discuss,
distinguish, discriminate, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalize,
give example, indicate, illustrate, infer, locate, paraphrase, predict,
report, restate, review, rewrite, solve, summarize, tell, translate
you gather from it all?
can apply appropriate concepts or abstractions to a problem or situation
even when not prompted to do so.
apply, change, choose, compute, demonstrate, develop, discover,
dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, manipulate, modify, operate,
organize, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, schedule, solve,
transfer, use, write
you use this?
may this have?
this apply to... ?
was this done?
this method, create a different one.
can break down the material into its parts and define the relationship
between the parts.
analyze, appraise, breakdown, calculate, classify, categorize, compare,
contrast, critisize, determine, deduce, diagram, differentiate, discriminate,
distinguish, examine, experiment, evaluate, identify, illustrate, infer,
outline, point out, question, relate, select, separate, select, subdivide,
facts should be considered?
this information according to topic areas.
see a pattern emerging?
can create a product, combining parts from previous experience and new
material to create a whole.
arrange, assemble, categorize, collect, combine, compile, compose,
conceive, construct, create, design, develop, devise, establish, explain,
formulate, generate, invent, make manage, modify, organize, originate,
plan, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite,
set up, summarize, tell, write
plans for a new...
this system be today if this data did not exist?
a function tool for...
do you draw?
you validate your conclusions?
these ideas related?
make judgements about the value of materials, ideas and so forth.
appraise, argue, ascertain, assess, attach, choose, compare, conclude,
contrast, criticize, decide, defend, describe, discriminate, estimate,
evaluate, explain, interpret, judge, justify, rate, relate, resolve, score,
select, summarize, support, validate, value, write (i.e. - a review)
methods and data accurate?
you feel that this is the best solution?
have enough evidence to prove this?
you feel about the other alternatives?
use the senses to obtain cues to guide motor activity.
assemble, attempt, begin, carry out, copy, calibrate, construct,
dissect, duplicate, follow, mimic, move, practice, proceed, repeat, reproduce,
respond, organize, sketch, start, try
use guidelines as a basis or foundation for the skill.
acquire, adjust, assemble, complete, conduct, create, bend, do,
execute, improve, maintain, make, manipulate, modify, operate, pace, perform,
practice, produce, progress, repair, use
perform without error or assistance.
achieve, accomplish, advance, automatize, exceed, excel, master,
reach, refine, succeed, surpass, transcend
demonstrate proficiency with confidence.
alter, change, excel, rearrange, reorganize, revise, surpass, transcend
demonstrate automatic mastery level performance.
arrange, combine, compose, construct, create, design, refine, originate,
||Learner exhibits a willingness
to pay attention to particular information, phenomenon, or behavior and
acknowledge, agree, ask, attend, attempt, be aware, choose, describe, follow,
give, hold, identify, listen, locate, name, receive, reply, select, show
alertness, tolerate, use, view, watch, willing
||Learner attaches a value
or worth to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior.
adopt, approve, complete, choose, commit, defend, describe, desire, differentiate,
display, endorse, exhibit, explain, express, form, initiate, invite, join,
justify, offer, prefer, propose, read, report, sanction, select, share,
||Learner has developed
a value system by integrating different values and resolving conflicts.
adhere, alter, arrange, categorize, classify, combine, compare, complete,
defend, dispute, explain, establish, formulate, generalize, group, identify,
integrate, modify, order, organize, prepare, rank, rate, relate, share,
synthesize, systemize, volunteer
||Learner acts according
to a developed or accepted value system.
advocate, behave, characterize, conform, continue, cooperate, defend, devote,
disclose, discriminate, display, encourage, endure, exemplify, function,
incorporate, influence, join, justify, listen, maintain, modify, participate,
pattern, practice, preserve, perform, question, revise, retain, support,
2001 Michael Shaw